Apache Struts 1 is an open-source web application framework for developing Java EE web applications.It uses and extends the Java Servlet API to encourage developers to adopt a model–view–controller (MVC) architecture. Specifically, we use Struts tags in JSP pages, maintain user data with a Struts Action Form bean, and implement forwarding logic using a Struts Action object. You will also taught how to implement simple validation to your application, including setting up warning message for a failed login attempt.


Apache Struts 2 is an open-source web application framework for developing Java EE web applications. It uses and extends the Java Servlet API to encourage developers to adopt a model–view–controller (MVC) architecture. It is used to develop MVC (Model View Controller) based web applications. It is the combination of web work framework of open symphony and struts 1. It provides supports to POJO based actions, Validation Support, AJAX Support, Integration support to various frameworks such as Hibernate, Spring, Tiles etc, support to various result types such as Free marker, Velocity, JSP etc.


  • The first benefit of using Struts is that you don't have to write a controller and can concentrate on writing business logic in action classes.
  • Simplified Design: Code is not tightly coupled to Struts framework or Servlet API.
  • AJAX Support − Struts2 has recognized the take over by Web2.0 technologies, and has integrated AJAX support into the product by creating AJAX tags, this function is very similar to the standard Struts2 tags.
  • Easy Integration − Integration with other frameworks like Spring, Tiles and SiteMesh is now easier with a variety of integration available with Struts2.
  • Struts2 has a great support for multiple view options (JSP, Freemarker, Velocity and XSLT).


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Struts2 Introduction

  • What is Struts open
  • Struts2 Features
  • Model1 vs Model2

Core Components

  • Interceptors
  • ValueStack
  • ActionContext
  • ActionInvocation
  • OGNL

Struts 2 Architecture

Struts2 Action

Struts2 Configuration

  • struts.xml
  • multi configuration
  • multi namespace


  • Custom Interceptor
  • params interceptor
  • execAndWait
  • prepare interceptor
  • modelDriven interceptor
  • exception interceptor
  • fileUpload interceptor

Struts 2 Validation

Custom Validation

Bundled Validators

  • requiredstring
  • stringlength
  • email
  • date
  • int
  • double
  • url
  • regex

Ajax Validation

Aware Interface

  • ServletActionContext
  • SessionAware
  • ServletContextAware

Struts2 with I18N

Zero Configuration

  • By convention
  • By annotation

Struts2 with Tiles2

Hibernate with Struts2

Spring with Struts2

UI Tags

  • DateTimePicker
  • Iterator Tag


  • Registration Example
  • Login and Logout
  • Fetch All Records

Interview Questions